Image of old Ft. Lewis

Video of Zoom presentation recorded on September 9, 2023 at the Animas Museum.


  • Byrne, Bernard James M.D. (1935) A Frontier Army Surgeon. New York: Exposition Press.
  • Delaney, Robert W.  (1977) Blue Coats, Red Skins, & Black Gowns.  Durango: Durango Herald.
  • Frink, M. & Barthelmess, C. (1965) Photographer on an Army Mule. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Leckie, W.H. & Leckie, S.A. (2003) The Buffalo Soldiers, A Narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Katz, W.L.  (1986) Black Indians. New York: Ethrac Publications.
  • Smith, Duane. (2005) Sacred Trust, The Birth and Development of Fort Lewis College. Durango: Fort Lewis College Foundation.
  • Smith, Duane. (2006) A Time for Peace, Fort Lewis, Colorado 1878 – 1891. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

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